Types of Subjects and Objects

    Dogs, water, Jeffery
    The teacher, a cat, some ice
    A big, black spider
    The man who lives there
    To sing
    Whatever you do

    Single words
    Article + Noun
    Adjective(s) + Noun
    Noun + relative clause
    Noun clauses


    A dog is a man’s best friend.
    Whatever you do is up to you.
    Skiing is believing.

    He ate ten apples.
    I like to eat.

    Mr. Trump is my friend.
    That is the man (whom) I told you about.

    As Subjects

    As Objects

    As Complements

As Objects of prepositions*

    I don’t approve of John.
    I don’t approve of singing.
    I don’t approve of John’s singing.

    I don’t approve of John’s singing love songs.
    I don’t approve of whatever John does.

    (the person)
    (the action)
    (gerund’s subject is possessive)
    (S gerund Obj.)

    (noun clause)

*Be careful. Only gerunds (not infinitives) can be used as objects of prepositions.

    I look forward to Spring.
    I look forward to your party.
    I look forward to seeing you.

    Prep. + Object
    Prep. + Object
    Prep. + Gerund

    (In this case, “to” is a preposition, not part of an infinitive.)

    I want to see you.
    I hope to see you.
    I enjoy seeing you.
    I avoid seeing you.
    I’m interested in seeing you.
    I’m tired of seeing you.
    I am accustomed to seeing you.

    S V to V (infinitive)

    S V Ving (gerund)

    Prep + gerund